The analytical framework that Draper & Associates employees for Program Reviews is based on six interrelated parameters and associated criteria that have been developed in the course of conducting numerous studies of a similar nature. These Analytical Parameters include:
- Mission and Scope of Service
- Organizational Structure
- Operational Effectiveness
- Financial Stewardship
- Management Effectiveness
Mission and Scope of Service addresses the degree to which the strategic goals and objectives of a client are consistent with its legislated mandate and/or the needs and service requirements of its constituents. Conclusions regarding Mission and Scope of Service must take into account programmatic trends and priorities, as well as changes in the market place relating to other public or private sector entities competing to provide similar programs and services to the same constituents. Technology, its cost, and its impact on the ability to continue providing programs and services efficiently/competitively must also be considered.
Organizational Structure addresses the array and alignment of functions and associated personnel required to carry out the mission and scope of services assigned to or adopted by a client. The criteria used to assess organizational effectiveness include:
- Functional Integrity, addressing the degree to which all required functions are present and clearly identified and defined within the organization and the extent to which functional fragmentation and/or duplication is minimized or eliminated.
- Functional Alignment, concerning the grouping of functions into logical groups based functional compatibility, process interrelationships and internal control considerations.
- Functional Role Clarity, dealing with clear delineation of responsibility and accountability within hierarchical functional groups and clear reporting relationships/channels of communication vertically within functional responsibility areas.
- Supervisory Role Clarity, involving the delineation and preservation of supervisory authority and chain-of-command reporting relationships compatible with functional management responsibility and accountability.
- Span of Control, addressing the appropriate breadth and depth of management responsibility and control, both in terms of the number of direct report personnel and the diversity and complexity of the functions involved.
- Internal Interface Management, concerning the horizontal communications, coordination and management oversight relating to the intermediate work products and responsibility transition points involved in cross-functional processes that lead to final program and/or service delivery outcomes.
- External Interface Management, dealing with the communication, coordination and oversight functions relating to external interfaces with peer agencies and constituent organizations.
Operational Effectiveness addresses the appropriateness of current processes, systems and procedures in light of existing organizational goals and objectives, the specific nature of the programs and services involved, and commonly accepted professional practices within the industry. Internal metrics are compiled, compared and contrasted with external benchmarks to identify variances and opportunities for improvement in areas such as process flow, staff and resource utilization, the application of technology and overall production efficiency and service quality.
Compliance addresses the degree to which operational processes, monitoring, and reporting functions are designed and are performing in accordance with applicable external regulatory guidelines, as well as internal programmatic and organizational policies.
Financial Stewardship addresses the appropriateness with which program funds are administered, as well as the cost effectiveness with which operational and service delivery outcome are produced. Financial documents/reports, management practices, systems and transactional processes are carefully reviewed to assess the degree of diligence and control applied in verifying and monitoring eligibility, disbursing funds, and reconciling balances. Parallel analyses are performed to trace the flow of program funds and the coincident flow of operational and financial processes. The cost of the resources involved is then loaded to determine the unit cost of producing both operational and financial process outcomes.
Management Effectiveness addresses the establishment and communication (both internally and externally) of a clear, attainable and measurable set of specific goals for organizational, operational and financial effectiveness. It further addresses the processes employed to monitor, report and reinforce performance against established goals and objectives, including the data sets and information utilized, the frequency with which it is compiled and disseminated, the practices in place to promote and enforce ownership, accountability and continuous improvement.
These Analytical Parameters represent or reflect the key aspects of consideration that are most relevant in assessing the performance of a multi-program, multi-functional organization. Taken together they provide a rational and relational framework for identifying, evaluating, verifying and drawing conclusions regarding cross-program and/or cross-functional issues and opportunities for improvement.
Program Review Approach
Program Review Deliverables